Clean Energy and Sustainability Open Access

ISSN: 2959-7676 (Online)

2959-7668 (Print)

Clean Energy and Sustainability (CES) aims to be an international, peer-reviewed and open access journal that publishes original theoretical and experimental research in all aspects of clean energy.

Editor-in-Chief

Articles (16) All articles

Article

23 May 2024

Numerical Study on Pyrolysis Characteristics of Oil-Based Drilling Cuttings in a Two-Layer Screw-Driving Spiral Heat Exchanger

Oil-based drilling cuttings is a pollutive nearly-solid waste produced in oil exploitation that has to be treated for meeting clean production requirement of oil and gas exploration. A two-layer screw-driving spiral heat exchanger was thus proposed for this purpose. To investigate its effectiveness and performance, a 10-component n-decane one-step product proportional distribution chemical model was used to describe oil-based drilling cuttings pyrolysis process, and numerical simulations were carried out of forced convection inside the heat exchanger with a full consideration of pyrolysis and evaporation effects. The influences of rotation speed, screw pitch and cross-sectional shape of spiral tube on pyrolysis, flow, and heat mass transfer characteristics were studied. The results show that the heat absorbed needed for evaporation is much less than that for pyrolysis, and the heat transfer coefficient with consideration of evaporation and pyrolysis is almost two times greater than that without. The pyrolysis rate increases first, and then decreases once the temperature is higher than 838 K due to the coupled effects of temperature and reactant concentration change. The velocity, heat transfer coefficient and conversion ratio of oil-based drilling cuttings all increase with rotation speed, but the conversion ratio increase becomes slower and slower once the rotation speed exceeds 0.2 rad·s−1. The average vorticity and flow resistance of oil-based drilling cuttings both decrease with screw pitch monotonously, while heat transfer coefficient increases first and then decreases because of the opposite effects of centrifugal force and thermal entrance length. Reducing screw pitch can increase conversion ratio, but once screw pitch is smaller than 800 mm, the conversion ratio approaches to a constant. Cross-sectional shape of spiral tube also affects pyrolysis performance, and circular cross-sectional spiral tube seems to be the best.

Commentary

25 April 2024

Monitoring Complexity in Clean Energy Systems Applications

Clean energy applications often involve systems with technological process monitoring. This supervision aims to optimize operation, in particular efficiency, performance and compatibility with dedicated criteria. Most of these energy systems involve complex procedures. A complex procedure is an arrangement of compound processes interacting in interdependent behaviors. The supervision of these complex procedures focuses on the interaction of compound processes, their digital coupling and the handling of uncertainties in their detection and digital tools. Real-virtual pairs, such as digital twins, could carry out such surveillance. This commentary aims to analyze and illustrate such supervision in clean electromagnetic energy systems based on a review of the literature. The notion of complexity and the interactions of the compound processes involved are first addressed and detailed. The modeling of these interactions is presented through the mathematical coupling of the electromagnetic equations with other equations of the phenomena involved. These phenomena are linked to the functional or environmental behaviors of the systems. Compound process monitoring in complex procedures is then analyzed taking into account threats, unsolicited external events and uncertainties related to the sensing and digital tools involved. This contribution illustrated several points relating to, the relationship between the complexities of a real energy procedure and its coupled virtual model, the dependence of the model reduction strategy on each specific application and the reduction of uncertainties through the matching of real-virtual pairs. The different analyses are supported by literature references permitting more information when necessary.

Article

13 March 2024

The Potential of Salinity Gradient Energy Using Reverse Electrodialysis to Generate Electricity for Seawater Desalination Plants, an example from Western Australia

Seawater desalination plays a vital role in addressing the increasing global demand for freshwater. However, the energy-intensive nature of desalination processes and the generation of brine by-products pose environmental challenges. In Western Australia (WA), approximately 48% of freshwater is supplied by two seawater desalination plants employing the energy-intensive seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) method. These plants are powered by a combination of renewable and conventional energy sources. Typically, the most efficient approach for desalination plants involves a blend of renewable energy sources. Salinity gradient energy (SGE) harnessed through the reverse electrodialysis (RED) system, which derives energy from mixing waters with varying salinities, has emerged as a potential solution. RED utilizes ion-exchange membranes to convert the chemical potential difference between two solutions into electric power. The net specific energy of SGE, calculated based on the Gibbs free energy associated with mixing seawater and wastewater, is estimated at approximately 0.14 kWh per cubic metre of brine for SWRO desalination plants. The combined SGE potential of WA’s two desalination facilities theoretically amounts to approximately 87.4 MWh of energy. However, due to the inherent limitations of the RED system’s current energy efficiency, only about 2.5% of the desalination plant’s energy requirements can be met through this technique. This paper addresses a significant gap in the literature by analyzing the technical and economic constraints of utilizing salinity gradient energy (SGE) through the reverse electrodialysis (RED) system for seawater desalination plants. This marks the first examination of its kind, shedding light on both the technical feasibility and economic challenges of SGE-RED application in this context. The scientific contribution lies in its innovative approach, integrating technical and economic perspectives to provide an understanding of SGE-RED technology’s potential drawbacks and opportunities. By identifying and tackling these challenges, this paper aims to pave the way for optimizing SGE-RED systems for practical implementation in seawater desalination plants.

Case Report

26 February 2024

‘Greening’ an Oil Exporting Country: A Hydrogen and Helium Closed-cycle Gas Turbines Case Study

Holistic decarbonisation requires collaborative efforts and substantial investments across diverse economic sectors. This study introduces an innovative national approach, blending technological insights and philosophical considerations to shape decarbonization policies and practices. Libya is the case study. The proposed framework involves submersible power stations with continuous-duty helium closed-cycle gas turbines to supply electricity demand and hydrogen. Extensive national data is analysed, incorporating factors such as sectoral consumption, sea temperature, and port locations. An analytical model is developed, providing a valuable foundation for realistic decarbonization scenarios. The model aims to maintain the benefits of current energy consumption, assuming a 2% growth rate, while assessing changes in a fully green economy. The results offer qualitative and quantitative insights on hydrogen use and an expected rise in electricity demand. Two scenarios are examined: self-sufficiency and replacing oil exports with hydrogen exports. This study provides a quantitative perspective on decarbonization, focusing on a submersible helium closed cycle gas turbine concept resistant to natural disasters and proliferation. Findings underscore the substantial changes and investments needed for this transition, identifying primary needs of 27 GW or 129 GW for self-sufficiency and exports, respectively. This foundational analysis marks the start of research, investment, and political agendas toward decarbonization.

Article

20 February 2024

Wind Influence on the Electrical Energy Production of Solar Plants

Solar energy, as a clean source of energy, plays a relevant role in this much desired (r)evolution. When talking about photovoltaics, despite the multiple studies on parameters that affect the panels operation, concrete knowledge on this matter is still in an incipient stage and precise data remains dispersed, given the mutability of outer factors beyond technology-related properties, hence the difficulties associated with exploration. Wind is one of them. Wind loads can affect the temperature of photovoltaics, whose efficiency is reduced when higher temperatures are reached. The viability of wind as natural cooling mechanism for solar plants and its influence on their electrical energy production is studied in this research work. Some appropriate results were achieved: depending on the module temperature prediction model used and on the photovoltaic technology in question, solar panels are foreseen to be up to approximately 3% more productive for average wind speeds and up to almost 7% more productive for higher speeds. Taking into consideration that wind speed values were collected in the close vicinity of the modules, these results can be proven to be even higher. That being said, this article contributes with accurate insights about wind influence on electrical energy production of solar plants.

Article

29 January 2024

A Novel High Step-up DC-DC Converter Using State Space Modelling Technique for Battery Storage Applications

This paper focuses a novel non-isolated coupled inductor based DC-DC converter with excessive VG (voltage gain) is analyzed with a state-space modeling technique. It builds up of using three diodes, three capacitors, an inductor and CI (coupled inductor). The main switch S is turn on due to body diode and voltage stress is reduced at the switch S by using diode D1 and Capacitor C1. This paper focuses on design modelling, mathematical calculations and operation principle of DC-DC converter is discussed with state-space modelling technique. The performance has been presented for two different voltages for EV applications i.e., 12 V, 48 V as input voltages with an high step-up outputs of 66 V and 831.7 V respectively. The converter stability is studied and determined the bode plot along with simulation performance results which are carried out using MATLAB R2022B.

Article

29 January 2024

The “Global Change Data Base” GCDB Facilitates a Transition to Clean Energy and Sustainability

This article presents the opportunities for constructing a global data base picturing underlying trends that drive global climate change. Energy-related CO2 emissions currently represent the key impact on climate change and thus become here the object of deep, long-term and historiographic analysis. In order to embrace all involved domains of technology, energy economy, fuel shares, economic efficacity, economic structure and population, a “Global Change Data Base” (GCDB) is suggested, based on earlier worldwide accepted data repositories. Such a GCDB works through regressions and statistical analysis of time series of data (on extensive magnitudes such as energy demand, population or Gross Domestic Product, GDP) as well as generation of derived data such as quotients of the former, yielding intensive magnitudes that describe systems and their structural properties. Moreover, the GCDB sets out to compute the first and second time derivatives of said magnitudes (and their percentual shares) which indicate new long-term developments already at very early phases. The invitation to participate in this foresight endeavour is extended to all readers. First preliminary GCDB results quantitatively portray the evolutionary structural global dynamics of economic growth, sectoral economic shifts, the shifts within energy carriers in various economic sectors, the ongoing improvements of energy intensity and energy efficiency in many economic sectors, and the structural changes within agricultural production and consumption systems.

Article

16 January 2024

The Interplay between Experimental Data and Uncertainty Analysis in Quantifying CO2 Trapping during Geological Carbon Storage

Numerical simulation is a widely used tool for studying CO2 storage in porous media. It enables the representation of trapping mechanisms and CO2 retention capacity. The complexity of the involved physicochemical phenomena necessitates multiphase flow, accurate fluid and rock property representation, and their interactions. These include CO2 solubility, diffusion, relative permeabilities, capillary pressure hysteresis, and mineralization, all crucial in CO2 trapping during carbon storage simulations. Experimental data is essential to ensure accurate quantification. However, due to the extensive data required, modeling under uncertainty is often needed to assess parameter impacts on CO2 trapping and its interaction with geological properties like porosity and permeability. This work proposes a framework combining laboratory data and stochastic parameter distribution to map uncertainty in CO2 retention over time. Published data representing solubility, residual trapping, and mineral trapping are used to calibrate prediction models. Geological property variations, like porosity and permeability, are coupled to quantify uncertainty. Results from a saline sandstone aquifer model demonstrate significant variation in CO2 trapping, ranging from 17% (P10 estimate) to 56% (P90), emphasizing the importance of considering uncertainty in CO2 storage projects. Quadratic response surfaces and Monte Carlo simulations accurately capture this uncertainty, resulting in calibrated models with an R-squared coefficient above 80%. In summary, this work provides a practical and comprehensive framework for studying CO2 retention in porous media, addressing uncertainty through stochastic parameter distributions, and highlighting its importance in CO2 storage projects. 

Review

14 November 2023

Microgrids Overview and Performance Evaluation on Low-voltage Distribution Network

Besides the increase in global energy demand, access to clean energy, reduction in greenhouse gas emissions caused by conventional power generation techniques, energy security, and availability of electricity in remote villages in emerging nations are some of the factors that foster the use of renewable energy sources (RESs) in generating electricity. One of the aims of initiating microgrids (MGs) is to maximize the benefits of RES while alleviating grid-connect issues. Microgrids are interconnected RESs and electrical loads within clearly delineated electrical limits that operate as individual controllable units on the electrical network. It can operate independently and be grid-connected. The paper presents a review and performance assessment of renewable energy-based microgrids under various operating scenarios in stand-alone, grid-connected, and transitioning modes of operation. Fault occurrences, an increase in micro-source generation, a load increase, and the sudden disconnection of a micro-source are some of the simulated scenarios. Microgrid network components’ performance, such as the bidirectional DC-DC converter and energy storage system (ESS), was evaluated. The simulated microgrid architecture includes a small hydroelectric plant, wind farm, and ESS. The work provides valuable information to energy stakeholders on the performance of microgrids in low-voltage distribution networks. The microgrid is coupled to a low-voltage distribution network (0.415 kV) via a PCC. The system under investigation is modeled and simulated using MATLAB/Simulink. From the simulation analysis, the fault effect was felt on the utility and did not escalate to the microgrid side during stand-alone operation. Power quality issues, such as voltage rise, are some of the challenges identified during the transition from one mode of operation to another. However, the energy storage system responds to disturbances and maintains system stability. The originality of this paper is based on evaluating different modes of operation of microgrids and comparing system performances under various operating conditions.

Article

07 October 2023

Comprehensive Evaluation of Sustainable Treatment Technology of Oily Sludge Based on AHP-FCE

Oil is an unsustainable energy since it is non-renewable. However, oil may not be completely replaced in a short time, so the environmental problems caused by the oil development still require our attention. The oily sludge is a kind of hazardous waste produced during the oil development. To reduce the environmental impact caused by oily sludge, low-carbon and sustainable treatment technologies need to be selected. The incineration, chemical extraction and thermal desorption are common technologies for treatment of oily sludge. We calculated the carbon emissions of these technologies. Then the index evaluation system of oily sludge treatment technology was established with the environmental, economic, social, and technical factors. And the weight of evaluation index was determined by the analytic hierarchy process (AHP). Through the investigation of industry experts, we evaluated the treatment technologies by the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method (FCE). The results showed that the carbon emissions of incineration are 42.70 t CO2-eq/t which is the highest. Meanwhile, it is 4.80 t CO2-eq/t and 0.10 t CO2-eq/t for chemical extraction and thermal desorption, respectively. The comprehensive scores of incineration, chemical extraction and thermal desorption were 4.59, 5.16 and 4.95, respectively. Therefore, the chemical extraction technology is an optimal treatment technology for oily sludge with the relatively low carbon emission and the highest comprehensive technical score. At the same time, the thermal desorption technology has strong application potential with the lowest carbon emissions. This result provides a reference for achieving clean and sustainable energy development processes.

Editorial

15 June 2022

Article

13 March 2023

Reduced Climate Impacts of Dairy Sludge Management by Introducing Hydrothermal Carbonization

Dairies which produce cheese and milk products can, however, produce large volumes of wastewater that require treatment, usually via activated sludge treatment. Disposal of the resulting activated sludge to land is viewed favorably as the sludge is rich in phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) and enables nutrient recycling. Nonetheless, sludge management can significantly influence the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to the atmosphere. This manuscript has modelled the GHG emissions arising from two sludge management strategies currently adopted by Danish dairies whereby: (i) sludge is stored and later applied to fields; or (ii) sludge is treated by anaerobic digestion (AD), stored, and the digestate will later be applied to fields. This is compared to (iii) an alternative sludge management strategy with treatment by Hydrothermal Carbonization (HTC). HTC is a technologically simple sludge treatment that could lower the cost for dewatering dairy sludge, forming a biochar-like material known as hydrochar. The produced hydrochar can be applied to the land for the purpose of carbon sequestration, P and N recycling. Our calculations indicate that GHG balances of HTC sludge management can result in a net carbon sequestration of 63 kg CO2eq per ton sludge, as opposed to net emissions of 420 and 156 kg CO2eq per ton sludge for strategies (i) and (ii), therefore offering significant reductions GHG emissions for the dairy sector.

AidanMarkSmith
SvenGjeddeSommer
ArezooTaghizadeh-Toosi

Perspective

29 January 2023

Carbon Neutrality and Life Cycle Thinking

Climate change is one of the most critical sustainability challenges facing the humanity. International communities have joined forces to mitigate climate change impact and aim to achieve carbon neutrality in the coming decades. To achieve this ambitious goal, life cycle thinking can play critical roles. Specifically, life cycle thinking helps evaluate the true climate impacts to avoid shifting emissions across processes in a product life cycle. It can also help inform consumers with carbon footprint information to make climate-conscious choices. Finally, it can help identify key processes dominating the carbon footprint of a product so that future improvement can set priorities. High quality data is required for accurate and timely carbon footprint accounting and critical challenges exist to obtain and share such data.

Ruoxi Xiong
Ming Xu

Article

19 September 2023

Advancing Green Hydrogen Production in Saudi Arabia: Harnessing Solar Energy and Seawater Electrolysis

The transition to clean and sustainable energy sources is crucial for combating the challenges posed by climate change. Green hydrogen, produced through renewable energy-driven electrolysis, holds significant promise as a viable clean energy carrier. The study introduces a system that leverages abundant solar energy and utilizes seawater as the feedstock for electrolysis, potentially offering a cost-effective solution. A comprehensive mathematical model, implemented in MATLAB, is employed to simulate the design and operational efficiency of the proposed green hydrogen production system. The system’s core components include solar panels as a clean energy source, an advanced MPPT charge controller ensuring optimal power delivery to the electrolyzer, and a seawater tank serving as the electrolyte source. The model combines these elements, allowing for continuous operation and efficient hydrogen production, addressing concerns about energy losses and cost-effectiveness. Results demonstrate the influence of solar irradiance on the system’s performance, revealing the need to account for seasonal variations when designing green hydrogen production facilities. Theoretical experiments are conducted to evaluate the behavior of a lithium battery, essential for stabilizing the system’s output and ensuring continuous operation during periods of low solar radiation. 

Hossam S. AbdelMeguid
Hossam F. Al-johani
ZakariyaF.Saleh
Abdulmalk AAlmalki
Abdulaziz MAlmalki

Article

15 August 2023

Thermal and Economic Evaluations of a Drain Water Heat Recovery Device under Transient Conditions

This study explores the transient characteristics of a drain water heat recovery (DWHR) device employed for heat recovery from warm grey water in buildings. Experimental measurements were conducted to investigate the response time of the DWHR device under various flow conditions. The thermal performance of the system was assessed using both transient and steady-state effectiveness analyses. The findings reveal that the response time is influenced by the water volume within the system, with an increase observed, and by the water flow rate, which leads to a decrease in response time. Additionally, a decrease in effectiveness is noted when hot water is used in short and frequent intervals. Furthermore, an economic analysis demonstrates that considering the transient behavior of the device results in a significant overall decrease of 37% in annual savings. Specifically, the usage of sinks exhibits a reduction in annual savings by 56%, while showers show a decrease of 13% in annual savings.

EzraOvadia
MostafaElsharqawy

Perspective

13 September 2023

Estimate of Economic Impact of EVs Li-ion Batteries Recovery

Nowadays, increasing attention is directed towards the sustainable use of raw materials. For a circular economy, recovery from spent devices represents a fundamental practice. With the transition to electric mobility, an increasing number of devices powered by lithium batteries are produced. Indeed, this is the fastest growing sector producing spent batteries, which are an important secondary source of critical raw materials, such as lithium, cobalt, graphite, and nickel. Therefore, this work aims to quantify the economic impact of recovering raw materials from lithium batteries used in the electric vehicles sector. Based on the chemical composition of the various lithium batteries and their market diffusion, the intrinsic economic value of this waste has been estimated to be around 6500 €/ton. Starting from the literature data on the global energy demand from lithium batteries and deriving the trend of their specific energy over time, the mass of material introduced into the market annually is estimated to reach 60 Mton/year by 2040. The annual amount of end-of-life lithium batteries was calculated by applying the Weibull distribution to describe the probability of failure, yielding 10 Mton/year by 2040. Finally, based on these results, the economic impact of the recovery market was assessed for two different scenarios.

VittorioRicci
PietroRomano
NicolaStampone

Article

07 October 2023

Comprehensive Evaluation of Sustainable Treatment Technology of Oily Sludge Based on AHP-FCE

Oil is an unsustainable energy since it is non-renewable. However, oil may not be completely replaced in a short time, so the environmental problems caused by the oil development still require our attention. The oily sludge is a kind of hazardous waste produced during the oil development. To reduce the environmental impact caused by oily sludge, low-carbon and sustainable treatment technologies need to be selected. The incineration, chemical extraction and thermal desorption are common technologies for treatment of oily sludge. We calculated the carbon emissions of these technologies. Then the index evaluation system of oily sludge treatment technology was established with the environmental, economic, social, and technical factors. And the weight of evaluation index was determined by the analytic hierarchy process (AHP). Through the investigation of industry experts, we evaluated the treatment technologies by the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method (FCE). The results showed that the carbon emissions of incineration are 42.70 t CO2-eq/t which is the highest. Meanwhile, it is 4.80 t CO2-eq/t and 0.10 t CO2-eq/t for chemical extraction and thermal desorption, respectively. The comprehensive scores of incineration, chemical extraction and thermal desorption were 4.59, 5.16 and 4.95, respectively. Therefore, the chemical extraction technology is an optimal treatment technology for oily sludge with the relatively low carbon emission and the highest comprehensive technical score. At the same time, the thermal desorption technology has strong application potential with the lowest carbon emissions. This result provides a reference for achieving clean and sustainable energy development processes.

Jiwei Wu
Shifan Zhang
Jian Li
Jiankun Liu
Haocheng Sun
Zixian Jia
Ye Xia
JieLiu
Dongliang Pan
JianqiangSun
Xianzhong Yi
Liang Ma

Article

16 January 2024

The Interplay between Experimental Data and Uncertainty Analysis in Quantifying CO2 Trapping during Geological Carbon Storage

Numerical simulation is a widely used tool for studying CO2 storage in porous media. It enables the representation of trapping mechanisms and CO2 retention capacity. The complexity of the involved physicochemical phenomena necessitates multiphase flow, accurate fluid and rock property representation, and their interactions. These include CO2 solubility, diffusion, relative permeabilities, capillary pressure hysteresis, and mineralization, all crucial in CO2 trapping during carbon storage simulations. Experimental data is essential to ensure accurate quantification. However, due to the extensive data required, modeling under uncertainty is often needed to assess parameter impacts on CO2 trapping and its interaction with geological properties like porosity and permeability. This work proposes a framework combining laboratory data and stochastic parameter distribution to map uncertainty in CO2 retention over time. Published data representing solubility, residual trapping, and mineral trapping are used to calibrate prediction models. Geological property variations, like porosity and permeability, are coupled to quantify uncertainty. Results from a saline sandstone aquifer model demonstrate significant variation in CO2 trapping, ranging from 17% (P10 estimate) to 56% (P90), emphasizing the importance of considering uncertainty in CO2 storage projects. Quadratic response surfaces and Monte Carlo simulations accurately capture this uncertainty, resulting in calibrated models with an R-squared coefficient above 80%. In summary, this work provides a practical and comprehensive framework for studying CO2 retention in porous media, addressing uncertainty through stochastic parameter distributions, and highlighting its importance in CO2 storage projects. 

Marcos VitorBarbosa Machado
Mojdeh Delshad
Kamy Sepehrnoori

Review

14 November 2023

Microgrids Overview and Performance Evaluation on Low-voltage Distribution Network

Besides the increase in global energy demand, access to clean energy, reduction in greenhouse gas emissions caused by conventional power generation techniques, energy security, and availability of electricity in remote villages in emerging nations are some of the factors that foster the use of renewable energy sources (RESs) in generating electricity. One of the aims of initiating microgrids (MGs) is to maximize the benefits of RES while alleviating grid-connect issues. Microgrids are interconnected RESs and electrical loads within clearly delineated electrical limits that operate as individual controllable units on the electrical network. It can operate independently and be grid-connected. The paper presents a review and performance assessment of renewable energy-based microgrids under various operating scenarios in stand-alone, grid-connected, and transitioning modes of operation. Fault occurrences, an increase in micro-source generation, a load increase, and the sudden disconnection of a micro-source are some of the simulated scenarios. Microgrid network components’ performance, such as the bidirectional DC-DC converter and energy storage system (ESS), was evaluated. The simulated microgrid architecture includes a small hydroelectric plant, wind farm, and ESS. The work provides valuable information to energy stakeholders on the performance of microgrids in low-voltage distribution networks. The microgrid is coupled to a low-voltage distribution network (0.415 kV) via a PCC. The system under investigation is modeled and simulated using MATLAB/Simulink. From the simulation analysis, the fault effect was felt on the utility and did not escalate to the microgrid side during stand-alone operation. Power quality issues, such as voltage rise, are some of the challenges identified during the transition from one mode of operation to another. However, the energy storage system responds to disturbances and maintains system stability. The originality of this paper is based on evaluating different modes of operation of microgrids and comparing system performances under various operating conditions.

EreolaJohnsonAladesanmi
Kingsley A Ogudo

Article

29 January 2024

A Novel High Step-up DC-DC Converter Using State Space Modelling Technique for Battery Storage Applications

This paper focuses a novel non-isolated coupled inductor based DC-DC converter with excessive VG (voltage gain) is analyzed with a state-space modeling technique. It builds up of using three diodes, three capacitors, an inductor and CI (coupled inductor). The main switch S is turn on due to body diode and voltage stress is reduced at the switch S by using diode D1 and Capacitor C1. This paper focuses on design modelling, mathematical calculations and operation principle of DC-DC converter is discussed with state-space modelling technique. The performance has been presented for two different voltages for EV applications i.e., 12 V, 48 V as input voltages with an high step-up outputs of 66 V and 831.7 V respectively. The converter stability is studied and determined the bode plot along with simulation performance results which are carried out using MATLAB R2022B.

Rajanand PatnaikNarasipuram

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