Volume 1, Issue 1 (March 2024) – 5 articles

Editorial

30 November 2023

Review

17 January 2024

A Review on Significant Role of Additive Manufacturing in Biomedical Applications

The rapid development of manufacturing sector has created a platform for implementing novel technologies such as additive manufacturing (AM). AM or 3D printing, has generated a lot of interests in biomedical applications during the last decade with a variety of novel printed polymeric materials. 3D printing fabricates 3D object with layer-by-layer processing through computer-controlled programming software. It has innumerable applications including electronics, aerospace engineering, automobile industry, architecture and medical sectors. One of the most demanding sectors of 3D printing is biomedical engineering applications such as medicines, drug delivery system, surgical instruments, orthopedics, scaffolds, implants etc. The clinical ramifications of AM-made healthcare goods are being catalyzed by recent developments in biomaterials. This review paper aims to explain the concept of 3D printing and its significance in developing polymeric materials for biomedical applications. An inclusive survey has been conducted on the various techniques involved in printing the biomedical devices. The proper selection of polymeric materials is important for biomedical applications, especially from 3D printing point of view and this vital parameter has been considered in this review paper. According to our findings, more breakthroughs in biomaterials, are required for the success and expansion of AM technology in the biomedical applications.

Article

27 February 2024

Knowledge-data Collaborated Digital Twin Model of Papermaking Process

The structure of the drying section in papermaking process is complex and too compacted to install sensors. In order to monitor the parameters in dynamic and manage the process practically with virtual simulations instead of physical experiments, a digital twin-based process parameter visualization model is constructed in this study. Regarding to the possible missing data in the modeling framework, it is proposed to combine industrial data, and knowledge of mechanism with intelligent algorithms to fill in the missing parameters. Upon which, a digital twin-based data visualization model is established using CADSIM Plus simulation software. Both of the knowledge -based mechanism solution model and the random forest-based parametric prediction model perform well, and the predicted parameters can support the digital twin visualization model in CADSIM Plus. Visual modeling of surface condenser in the paper drying section was realized for example, and results show that the model is capable of monitoring the dynamic changes of parameters in real time, so as to support the optimization and decision making of papermaking process such as formation, drying, et al.

Article

09 April 2024

Anisotropic Superelastic and Shape Memory Effect of Nitinol Manufactured by Electron Beam Powder Bed Fusion

This study explores the impact of energy input and build orientation on the anisotropic mechanical and functional properties of Ti-rich Nitinol (NiTi) produced via electron beam powder bed fusion (PBF-EB), integrated with layerwise in-situ monitoring of the melted surface via backscatter electron detection (ELO). NiTi, a binary alloy of nickel and titanium, exhibits shape memory and superelasticity, making it widely used in biomedical applications and sustainable technologies. PBF-EB, particularly with ELO, is highlighted for its advantages in producing crack-free NiTi with tailored microstructures. The investigation reveals that energy input significantly influences microstructure phases, with higher energy promoting increased evaporation of Ni and enhancing Ti-rich Ti2Ni precipitates, allowing for tailored material properties. Build orientation also proves crucial, impacting mechanical responses and functional properties. The 0° orientation yields the hardest mechanical response with the highest ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and the highest strain recovery ratio while the 45° orientation shows improved ductility but lower UTS. The influencing factors towards the formation of the anisotropic material properties are explained and the potential of tailoring the NiTi properties for specific applications by controlling energy input and build orientation in the PBF-EB process are underlined. These insights offer valuable criteria for designing innovative NiTi parts.

Article

01 January 1970

Efficacy and Cytocompatibility of a Pressure Garment—Silicone Composite Dressing Material for Scar Healing

Pressure garment therapy (PGT) and silicone gel sheeting (SGS) predominate non-invasive interventions for burn injuries, but the market lacks a composite solution combining pressure garment fabric (PGF) and medical-grade silicone (e.g. Biopor®AB) for multi-therapeutic efficacy. To address this gap, a versatile composite dressing of PGF-Biopor®AB was developed. PGF-Biopor®AB incorporates dual PGF-SGS therapy, mechanotherapy, and active moisture management, to facilitate recovery of hypertrophic subsidiary structures. The PGF structure enables the application of PGT, while the Biopor®AB silicone characteristics enforce silicone gel therapy (SGT). The PGF-SGS efficacy optimization not only reduces tension but also facilitates water vapor and oxygen penetration, along with hydration of the stratum corneum. Mechanotherapy, involving tension-shielding and pressure redistribution, promotes the reorganization of the collagen-fiber network. For active moisture management, the incorporation of a microchannel structure with active nylon absorbency facilitates effective moisture control through water absorption, retention, and cellular pathways of transport. In this study, the microscale features in the structure were further investigated. Under ISO 10993-5 standard, an over 70% cell viability in 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay containing the L929 cell line verified the enhanced cell growth and inhibited proliferation, endorsing the safe usage of PGF-Biopor®AB. Patient studies of one-month efficacy in both high and low-cell-density samples and an early scarless healed wound suggest that over 70% cell viability is sufficient for optimal scar therapeutics. The multifaceted scar repair roles are fulfilled by addressing persistent inflammation, insufficient oxygenation, low levels of perfusion, and scar-healing tension, hence realising the multi-therapeutic efficacy of the composite dressing.

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