Review Open Access

One-pot Multi-enzyme Cascade Synthesis of Bifunctional Compounds from Vegetable Oils

Synthetic Biology and Engineering. 2024, 2(1), 10004;
Xiaoxia Gao    Ran Lu    Yueyue Zhou    Lu Lin *    Xiao-Jun Ji *   
State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, College of Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, No. 30 South Puzhu Road, Nanjing 211816, China
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.

Received: 17 Jan 2024    Accepted: 20 Feb 2024    Published: 21 Feb 2024   


Green and efficient biocatalytic technology has become a complementary or alternative means of organic synthesis. Chemicals with two functional groups, such as α,ω-dicarboxylic acids, ω-amino fatty acids and ω-hydroxy fatty acids, are widely used in the synthesis of polymers such as polyesters and polyamides. In recent years, the production of biodegradable materials using renewable and abundant vegetable oils as green raw materials has attracted increasing attention, receiving an additional impetus from synthetic biology. This paper presents the recent research progress in the production of bifunctional chemicals with medium chain lengths of C8–C12 using multi-enzyme cascades. Recent studies have developed multilevel optimization strategies to improve the efficiency, economics, and sustainability of multi-enzyme cascades. Cofactor regeneration strategies were developed to avoid large additions of expensive coenzymes. Protein engineering strategies were applied to improve enzyme stability and catalytic performance. In addition, blocking the β-oxidation pathway, improving the efficiency of substrate transport across membranes and increasing cellular robustness are effective optimization strategies for whole-cell catalytic systems. In addition, we discuss the development prospects of producing high value-added fine chemicals from vegetable oils using one-pot multi-enzyme reaction systems.


Oh H-J, Kim S-U, Song J-W, Lee J-H, Kang W-R, Jo Y-S, et al. Biotransformation of Linoleic Acid into Hydroxy Fatty Acids and Carboxylic Acids Using a Linoleate Double Bond Hydratase as Key Enzyme. Adv. Synth. Catal. 2015, 357, 408–416. [Google Scholar]
Chung H, Yang JE, Ha JY, Chae TU, Shin JH, Gustavsson M, et al. Bio-based production of monomers and polymers by metabolically engineered microorganisms. Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 2015, 36, 73–84. [Google Scholar]
Richter M, Boldescu V, Graf D, Streicher F, Dimoglo A, Bartenschlager R, et al. Synthesis, Biological Evaluation, and Molecular Docking of Combretastatin and Colchicine Derivatives and their hCE1-Activated Prodrugs as Antiviral Agents. ChemMedChem 2019, 14, 469–483. [Google Scholar]
Lin L, Ledesma-Amaro R, Ji XJ, Huang H. Multienzymatic synthesis of nylon monomers from vegetable oils.  Trend. Biotech. 2023, 41, 150–153. [Google Scholar]
Hirschberg V, Rodrigue D. Recycling of polyamides: Processes and conditions. J. Polym. Sci. 2023, 61, 1937. [Google Scholar]
Winnacker M, Rieger B. Biobased Polyamides: Recent Advances in Basic and Applied Research. Macromol. Rapid Commun. 2016, 37, 1391–1413. [Google Scholar]
Shakiba M, Rezvani Ghomi E, Khosravi F, Jouybar S, Bigham A, Zare M, et al. Nylon—A material introduction and overview for biomedical applications. Polym. Adv. Tech. 2021, 32, 3368–3383. [Google Scholar]
Uyama H. Functional polymers from renewable plant oils. Polym. J. 2018, 50, 1003–1011. [Google Scholar]
Tembe GL, Bandyopadhyay AR, Ganeshpure PA, Satish S. Catalytic Dimerization of Alkyl Acrylates. Catal. Rev. 1996, 38, 299–327. [Google Scholar]
Zhang Y-HP, Sun J, Ma Y. Biomanufacturing: history and perspective. J. Ind. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2017, 44, 773–784. [Google Scholar]
Finnigan W, Hepworth LJ, Flitsch SL, Turner NJ. RetroBioCat as a computer-aided synthesis planning tool for biocatalytic reactions and cascades. Nat. Catal. 2021, 4, 98–104. [Google Scholar]
Speranza G, Morelli C, Orlandi M, Scarpellini M, Manitto, P. Fate of the oxygen atoms in the diol-dehydratase-catalyzed dehydration of meso-butane-2,3-diol. Helvetica Chim. Acta 2001, 84, 335–344. [Google Scholar]
Kunduru KR, Basu A, Haim Zada M, Domb AJ. Castor Oil-Based Biodegradable Polyesters. Biomacromolecules 2015, 16, 2572–2587. [Google Scholar]
Su Y, Ma S, Wang B, Xu X, Feng H, Hu K, et al. High-performance castor oil-based polyurethane thermosets: Facile synthesis and properties. React. Funct. Polym. 2023, 183, 105496. [Google Scholar]
Danov SM, Kazantsev OA, Esipovich AL, Belousov AS, Rogozhin AE, Kanakov EA. Recent advances in the field of selective epoxidation of vegetable oils and their derivatives: A review and perspective. Catal. Sci. Tech. 2017, 7, 3659–3675. [Google Scholar]
Seo JH, Lee SM, Lee J, Park JB. Adding value to plant oils and fatty acids: Biological transformation of fatty acids into omega-hydroxycarboxylic, alpha,omega-dicarboxylic, and omega-aminocarboxylic acids. J. Biotechnol. 2015, 216, 158–166. [Google Scholar]
Ribeiro AR, Silva SS, Reis RL. Challenges and opportunities on vegetable oils derived systems for biomedical applications. Biomater. Adv. 2022, 134, 112720. [Google Scholar]
Tran MH, Lee EY. Production of polyols and polyurethane from biomass: A review. Environ. Chem. Lett. 2023, 21, 2199–2223. [Google Scholar]
Zhou Y, Wu S, Bornscheuer UT. Recent advances in (chemo)enzymatic cascades for upgrading bio-based resources. Chem. Commun. 2021, 57, 10661–10674. [Google Scholar]
Lopez-Gallego F, Schmidt-Dannert C. Multi-enzymatic synthesis. Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 2010, 14, 174–183. [Google Scholar]
Barber DM, Duriš A, Thompson AL, Sanganee HJ, Dixon DJ. One-Pot Asymmetric Nitro-Mannich/Hydroamination Cascades for the Synthesis of Pyrrolidine Derivatives: Combining Organocatalysis and Gold Catalysis. ACS Catal. 2014, 4, 634–638. [Google Scholar]
Jiang C, Cheng G, Xu F, Wu Q. One Pot Enzyme-Catalyzed Cascade Benefit Systems. Mini-Rev. Org. Chem. 2021, 18, 282–295. [Google Scholar]
Pickl M, Fuchs M, Glueck SM, Faber K. Amination of omega-Functionalized Aliphatic Primary Alcohols by a Biocatalytic Oxidation-Transamination Cascade. ChemCatChem 2015, 7, 3121–3124. [Google Scholar]
Lee DS, Song J-W, Voß M, Schuiten E, Akula RK, Kwon Y-U, et al. Enzyme Cascade Reactions for the Biosynthesis of Long Chain Aliphatic Amines from Renewable Fatty Acids. Adv. Synth. Catal. 2019, 361, 1359–1367. [Google Scholar]
Ge J, Yang X, Yu H, Ye L. High-yield whole cell biosynthesis of Nylon 12 monomer with self-sufficient supply of multiple cofactors. Metab. Eng. 2020, 62, 172–185. [Google Scholar]
Lim S, Yoo H, Sarak S, Kim B, Yun H. A multi-enzyme cascade reaction for the production of α,ω-dicarboxylic acids from free fatty acids. J. Ind. Eng. Chem. 2021, 98, 358–365. [Google Scholar]
Jang H-Y, Singha K, Kim H-H, Kwon Y-U, Park J-B, et al.  Chemo-enzymatic synthesis of 11-hydroxyundecanoic acid and 1,11-undecanedioic acid from ricinoleic acid. Green Chem. 2016, 18, 1089–1095. [Google Scholar]
Brenna E, Colombo D, Di Lecce G, Gatti FG, Ghezzi MC, Tentori F, et al. Conversion of Oleic Acid into Azelaic and Pelargonic Acid by a Chemo-Enzymatic Route. Molecules 2020, 25, 1882. [Google Scholar]
Denard CA, Hartwig JF, Zhao H. Multistep One-Pot Reactions Combining Biocatalysts and Chemical Catalysts for Asymmetric Synthesis. ACS Catal. 2013, 3, 2856–2864. [Google Scholar]
Wang M, Si T, Zhao H. Biocatalyst development by directed evolution. Bioresour. Technol. 2012, 115, 117–125. [Google Scholar]
Biermann U, Bornscheuer U, Meier MA, Metzger JO, Schäfer HJ. Oils and fats as renewable raw materials in chemistry. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 2011, 50, 3854–3871. [Google Scholar]
Shoda S-I, Uyama H, Kadokawa J, Kimura S, Kobayashi S. Enzymes as Green Catalysts for Precision Macromolecular Synthesis. Chem. Rev. 2016, 116, 2307–2413. [Google Scholar]
Kang SH, Kim TH, Park JB, Oh DK. Increased Production of omega-Hydroxynonanoic Acid and alpha,omega-Nonanedioic Acid from Olive Oil by a Constructed Biocatalytic System. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2020, 68, 9488–9495. [Google Scholar]
Wu YX, Pan J, Yu HL, Xu JH. Enzymatic synthesis of 10-oxostearic acid in high space-time yield via cascade reaction of a new oleate hydratase and an alcohol dehydrogenase. J. Biotechnol. 2019, 306, 100008. [Google Scholar]
Kim T-H, Kang S-H, Han J-E, Seo E-J, Jeon E-Y, Choi G-E, et al. Multilayer Engineering of Enzyme Cascade Catalysis for One-Pot Preparation of Nylon Monomers from Renewable Fatty Acids. ACS Catal. 2020, 10, 4871–4878. [Google Scholar]
Chong G-G, Ding L-Y, Qiu Y-Y, Qian X-L, Li C-X, Pan J, et al. All-Carbon-Atom Refinery of Oleic Acid into Bifunctional Chemicals Using Artificial Consortia of Escherichia coli Strains. ACS Sustain. Chem. Eng. 2022, 10, 13125–13132. [Google Scholar]
Seo EJ, Yeon YJ, Seo JH, Lee JH, Boñgol JP, Oh Y, et al. Enzyme/whole-cell biotransformation of plant oils, yeast derived oils, and microalgae fatty acid methyl esters into n-nonanoic acid, 9-hydroxynonanoic acid, and 1,9-nonanedioic acid. Bioresour. Technol. 2018, 251, 288–294. [Google Scholar]
Ahsan M, Patil MD, Jeon H, Sung S, Chung T, Yun H. Biosynthesis of Nylon 12 Monomer, ω-Aminododecanoic Acid Using Artificial Self-Sufficient P450, AlkJ and ω-TA. Catalysts 2018, 8, 400. [Google Scholar]
Kirschner A, Altenbuchner J, Bornscheuer UT. Baeyer-Villiger-Monooxygenase fromPseudomonas fluorescens DSm50106. Chem. Ing. Tech. 2006, 78, 1408–1409. [Google Scholar]
Zhang GX, You ZN, Yu JM, Liu YY, Pan J, Xu JH, et al. Discovery and Engineering of a Novel Baeyer-Villiger Monooxygenase with High Normal Regioselectivity.  ChemBioChem 2021, 22, 1190–1195. [Google Scholar]
Chong GG, Ding LY, Qiu YY, Qian XL, Dong YL, Li CX, et al. Building Flexible Escherichia coli Modules for Bifunctionalizing N-Octanol: The Byproduct of Oleic Acid Biorefinery. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2022, 70, 10543–10551. [Google Scholar]
Otte KB, Kittelberger J, Kirtz M, Nestl BM, Hauer B. Whole-Cell One-Pot Biosynthesis of Azelaic Acid. ChemCatChem 2014, 6, 1003–1009. [Google Scholar]
Coenen A, Ferrer M, Jaeger KE, Schörken U. Synthesis of 12-aminododecenoic acid by coupling transaminase to oxylipin pathway enzymes. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2023, 107, 2209–2221. [Google Scholar]
Benessere V, Cucciolito ME, De Santis A, Di Serio M, Esposito R, Ruffo F, et al. Sustainable Process for Production of Azelaic Acid Through Oxidative Cleavage of Oleic Acid. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 2015, 92, 1701–1707. [Google Scholar]
Todea A, Deganutti C, Spennato M, Asaro F, Zingone G, Milizia T, et al. Azelaic Acid: A Bio-Based Building Block for Biodegradable Polymers. Polymers 2021, 13, 4091. [Google Scholar]
Song JW, Jeon EY, Song DH, Jang HY, Bornscheuer UT, Oh DK, et al. Multistep enzymatic synthesis of long-chain alpha,omega-dicarboxylic and omega-hydroxycarboxylic acids from renewable fatty acids and plant oils. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 2013, 52, 2534–2537. [Google Scholar]
Sun QF, Zheng YC, Chen Q, Xu JH, Pan J. Engineering of an oleate hydratase for efficient C10-Functionalization of oleic acid.  Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2021, 537, 64–70. [Google Scholar]
Rehdorf J, Kirschner A, Bornscheuer UT. Cloning, expression and characterization of a Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase from Pseudomonas putida KT2440.  Biotechnol. Lett. 2007, 29, 1393–1398. [Google Scholar]
Custódio L, Soares F, Pereira H, Barreira L, Vizetto-Duarte C, João M, et al. Fatty acid composition and biological activities of Isochrysis galbana T-ISO, Tetraselmis sp. and Scenedesmus sp.: possible application in the pharmaceutical and functional food industries. J. Appl. Phycol. 2013, 26, 151–161. [Google Scholar]
Jeon E-Y, Seo J-H, Kang W-R, Kim M-J, Lee J-H, Oh D-K, et al. Simultaneous Enzyme/Whole-Cell Biotransformation of Plant Oils into C9 Carboxylic Acids. ACS Catal. 2016, 6, 7547–7553. [Google Scholar]
Liavonchanka A, Feussner I. Lipoxygenases: occurrence, functions and catalysis. J. Plant Physiol. 2006, 163, 348–357. [Google Scholar]
Otte KB, Kirtz M, Nestl BM, Hauer B. Synthesis of 9-oxononanoic acid, a precursor for biopolymers. ChemSusChem 2013, 6, 2149–2156. [Google Scholar]
Li X-L, Zhang K, Jiang J-L, Zhu R, Wu W-P, Deng J, et al. Synthesis of medium-chain carboxylic acids or α,ω-dicarboxylic acids from cellulose-derived platform chemicals. Green Chem. 2018, 20, 362–368. [Google Scholar]
Kirschner A, Altenbuchner J, Bornscheuer UT. Cloning, expression, and characterization of a Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase from Pseudomonas fluorescens DSM 50106 in E. coli. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2007, 73, 1065–1072. [Google Scholar]
Yu JM, Liu YY, Zheng YC, Li H, Zhang XY, Zheng GW, et al. Direct Access to Medium-Chain alpha,omega-Dicarboxylic Acids by Using a Baeyer-Villiger Monooxygenase of Abnormal Regioselectivity. ChemBioChem 2018, 19, 2049–2054. [Google Scholar]
Wang L, Wang L, Wang R, Wang Z, Wang J, Yuan H, et al. Efficient Biosynthesis of 10-Hydroxy-2-decenoic Acid Using a NAD(P)H Regeneration P450 System and Whole-Cell Catalytic Biosynthesis. ACS Omega 2022, 7, 17774–17783. [Google Scholar]
Collazo N, Carpena M, Nuñez-Estevez B, Otero P, Simal-Gandara J, Prieto MA. Health Promoting Properties of Bee Royal Jelly: Food of the Queens. Nutrients 2021, 13, 543. [Google Scholar]
Koh M-H, Kim H, Shin N, Kim H-S, Yoo D, Kim Y-G. Divergent Process for C10, C11and C12ω-Amino Acid and α,ω-Dicarboxylic Acid Monomers of Polyamides from Castor Oil as a Renewable Resource. B Korean Chem. Soc. 2012, 33, 1873–1878. [Google Scholar]
Kim TH, ang SH, Park JB, Oh DK. Construction of an engineered biocatalyst system for the production of medium-chain alpha,omega-dicarboxylic acids from medium-chain omega-hydroxycarboxylic acids. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2020, 117, 2648–2657. [Google Scholar]
Yang KM, Kim BM, Park JB. Omega-Hydroxyundec-9-enoic acid induces apoptosis through ROS-mediated endoplasmic reticulum stress in non-small cell lung cancer cells. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2014, 448, 267–273. [Google Scholar]
Cho YH, Kim SJ, Kim HW, Kim JY, Gwak JS, Chung D, et al. Continuous supply of glucose and glycerol enhances biotransformation of ricinoleic acid to (E)-11-(heptanoyloxy) undec-9-enoic acid in recombinant Escherichia coli. J. Biotechnol. 2017, 253, 34–39. [Google Scholar]
Jang H-Y, Jeon E-Y, Baek A-Y, Lee S-M, Park J-B. Production of ω-hydroxyundec-9-enoic acid and N-heptanoic acid from ricinoleic acid by recombinant Escherichia coli-based biocatalyst. Process Biochem. 2014, 49, 617–622. [Google Scholar]
Cho YH, Kim SJ, Kim JY, Lee DH, Park K, Park YC. Effect of PelB signal sequences on Pfe1 expression and omega-hydroxyundec-9-enoic acid biotransformation in recombinant Escherichia coli Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2018, 102, 7407–7416. [Google Scholar]
Yapa Mudiyanselage A, Viamajala S, Varanasi S, Yamamoto K. Simple Ring-Closing Metathesis Approach for Synthesis of PA11, 12, and 13 Precursors from Oleic Acid.  ACS Sustain. Chem. Eng. 2014, 2, 2831–2836. [Google Scholar]
Ahsan MM, Jeon H, P Nadarajan S, Chung T, Yoo HW, Kim BG, et al. Biosynthesis of the Nylon 12 Monomer, omega-Aminododecanoic Acid with Novel CYP153A, AlkJ, and omega-TA Enzymes. Biotechnol. J. 2018, 13, e1700562. [Google Scholar]
Honda Malca S, Scheps D, Kühnel L, Venegas-Venegas E, Seifert A, Nestl BM, et al. Bacterial CYP153A monooxygenases for the synthesis of omega-hydroxylated fatty acids. Chem. Commun. 2012, 48, 5115–5117. [Google Scholar]
Munro AW, Leys DG, McLean KJ, Marshall KR, Ost TW, Daff S, et al.  P450 BM3: the very model of a modern flavocytochrome. Trend. Biochem. Sci. 2002, 27, 250–257. [Google Scholar]
Scheps D, Honda Malca S, Richter SM, Marisch K, Nestl BM, Hauer B. Synthesis of omega-hydroxy dodecanoic acid based on an engineered CYP153A fusion construct. Microb. Biotechnol. 2013, 6, 694–707. [Google Scholar]
Hollmann F, Arends IWCE, Holtmann D. Enzymatic reductions for the chemist. Green Chem. 2011, 13, 2285–2314. [Google Scholar]
Shin KC, Kang S-H, Lee T-E, Kim T-H, Oh D-K. Pentadecanedioic acid production from 15-hydroxypentadecanoic acid using an engineered biocatalyst with a co-factor regeneration system. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 2022, 99, 675–683. [Google Scholar]
Kirmair L, Seiler DL, Skerra A. Stability engineering of the Geobacillus stearothermophilus alcohol dehydrogenase and application for the synthesis of a polyamide 12 precursor. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2015, 99, 10501–10513. [Google Scholar]
Seo EJ, Kim HJ, Kim MJ, Kim JS, Park JB. Cofactor specificity engineering of a long-chain secondary alcohol dehydrogenase from Micrococcus luteus for redox-neutral biotransformation of fatty acids.  Chem. Commun. 2019, 55, 14462–14465. [Google Scholar]
Park YJ, Lee KH, Baek MS, Kim D-M. High-throughput engineering of initial coding regions for maximized production of recombinant proteins. Biotechnol. Bioprocess Eng. 2017, 22, 497–503. [Google Scholar]
Opperman DJ, Reetz MT. Towards practical Baeyer-Villiger-monooxygenases: design of cyclohexanone monooxygenase mutants with enhanced oxidative stability. ChemBioChem 2010, 11, 2589–2596. [Google Scholar]
Schöneich C. Mechanisms of protein damage induced by cysteine thiyl radical formation. Chem. Res. Toxicol. 2008, 21, 1175–1179. [Google Scholar]
Schöneich C. Thiyl radicals and induction of protein degradation.  Free Radic. Res. 2015, 50, 143–149. [Google Scholar]
Dijkman WP, de Gonzalo G, Mattevi A, Fraaije MW. Flavoprotein oxidases: classification and applications. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2013, 97, 5177–5188. [Google Scholar]
Woo JM, Jeon EY, Seo EJ, Seo JH, Lee DY, Yeon YJ, et al. Improving catalytic activity of the Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase-based Escherichia coli biocatalysts for the overproduction of (Z)-11-(heptanoyloxy)undec-9-enoic acid from ricinoleic acid. Sci. Rep. 2018, 8, 10280. [Google Scholar]
Seo EJ, Kim M-J, Park S-Y, Park S, Oh D-K, Bornscheuer U, et al. Enzyme Access Tunnel Engineering in Baeyer-Villiger Monooxygenases to Improve Oxidative Stability and Biocatalyst Performance. Adv. Synth. Catal. 2021, 364, 555–564. [Google Scholar]
Bae JH, Park BG, Jung E, Lee PG, Kim BG. fadD deletion and fadL overexpression in Escherichia coli increase hydroxy long-chain fatty acid productivity. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2014, 98, 8917–8925. [Google Scholar]
Wang D, Wu H, Thakker C, Beyersdorf J, Bennett GN, San KY. Efficient free fatty acid production in engineered Escherichia coli strains using soybean oligosaccharides as feedstock. Biotechnol. Prog. 2015, 31, 686–694. [Google Scholar]
Jawed K, Mattam AJ, Fatma Z, Wajid S, Abdin MZ, Yazdani SS. Engineered Production of Short Chain Fatty Acid in Escherichia coli Using Fatty Acid Synthesis Pathway. PLoS ONE 2016, 11, e0160035. [Google Scholar]
Royce LA, Yoon JM, Chen Y, Rickenbach E, Shanks JV, Jarboe LR. Evolution for exogenous octanoic acid tolerance improves carboxylic acid production and membrane integrity. Metab. Eng. 2015, 29, 180–188. [Google Scholar]
Jeon EY, Song JW, Cha HJ, Lee SM, Lee J, Park JB. Intracellular transformation rates of fatty acids are influenced by expression of the fatty acid transporter FadL in Escherichia coli cell membrane. J. Biotechnol. 2018, 281, 161–167. [Google Scholar]
Julsing MK, Schrewe M, Cornelissen S, Hermann I, Schmid A, Bühler B. Outer membrane protein AlkL boosts biocatalytic oxyfunctionalization of hydrophobic substrates in Escherichia coli. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 2012, 78, 5724–5733. [Google Scholar]
Shin J, Yu J, Park M, Kim C, Kim H, Park Y, et al. Endocytosing Escherichia coli as a Whole-Cell Biocatalyst of Fatty Acids. ACS Synth. Biol. 2019, 8, 1055–1066. [Google Scholar]
Xu Y, Li F, Yang K, Qiao Y, Yan Y, Yan J. A facile and robust non-natural three enzyme biocatalytic cascade based on Escherichia coli surface assembly for fatty alcohol production. Energy Convers. Manag. 2019, 181, 501–506. [Google Scholar]
Zhang ZX, Wang YZ, Nong FT, Xu Y, Ye C, Gu Y, et al. Developing a dynamic equilibrium system in Escherichia coli to improve the production of recombinant proteins. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2022, 106, 6125–6137. [Google Scholar]
Woo JM, Kim JW, Song JW, Blank LM, Park JB. Activation of the Glutamic Acid-Dependent Acid Resistance System in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) Leads to Increase of the Fatty Acid Biotransformation Activity. PLoS ONE 2016, 11, e0163265. [Google Scholar]
Sun Z, Hübner R, Li J, Wu C. Artificially sporulated Escherichia coli cells as a robust cell factory for interfacial biocatalysis. Nat. Commun. 2022, 13, 3142. [Google Scholar]
Creative Commons

© 2024 by the authors; licensee SCIEPublish, SCISCAN co. Ltd. This article is an open access article distributed under the CC BY license (