The X.0 Wave/Tomorrow Age Theory: Sculpting the Future of Civilization

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2025.

Topic Editor (1)

Hamid  Doost Mohammadian
Prof. Dr. Hamid Doost Mohammadian 
School of Business and Economic, Center of Sustainable Governance (CSG) at University of Applied Sciences (FHM), Germany
Interests: Interdisciplinary Studies; Combination of Humanities and Engineering; Future Study; Cultural Dimensions, Innovation, SME; Digitalization & Blue-Green Sustainability

Topic Collection Information

Introduction: The X.0 Wave/Age Theory, also known as the Theory of Comprehensive Everything, is an innovative framework conceived, invented, introduced, and developed by Prof. Dr. Hamid Doost Mohammadian in 2010. This theory offers an in-depth understanding of the evolution of human civilization, intricately linked with advancements in knowledge, technology, and business. It divides history into distinct waves or ages, each marked by transformative innovations, shaping societal structures and interactions. The framework utilizes the Seven Pillars of Sustainability (7PS) model to analyze these transformations.

Summary: This Special Issue delves into the profound implications of the X.0 Wave Theory, addressing its significance for the future across various dimensions:
  1. Historical Analysis: Investigating the theoretical foundations and historical roots of the X.0 Wave/Age Theory, tracing the evolution of human civilization through distinct knowledge, technological, and business advancements.
  2. Technological Paradigms: Exploring emerging innovations such as artificial intelligence, biotechnology, and virtual reality, and their potential impacts on future scenarios. This includes the integration of these technologies into various industries and the potential for creating new business opportunities and disrupting existing ones.
  3. Socio-Economic Dynamics: Evaluating the challenges and opportunities brought by technological disruptions, along with policy considerations to foster innovation. This includes examining the impacts on labor markets, economic inequality, and societal well-being, and proposing strategies for inclusive growth and equitable distribution of technological benefits.
  4. Business Transformations: Examining how entrepreneurial endeavors and innovative business models are catalyzed by the X.0 Wave/Age Theory. This includes analyzing the shift towards digital enterprises, the role of SMEs in leveraging new technologies, and the emergence of new business ecosystems. Additionally, the focus will be on adapting to the future of Industry 4.0 (Germany) which is called Industry 5.0, and the future of Society 5.0 (evaluated by the Japanese government) which is called Society 6.0, symbolizing Western and non-Western cultural approaches to technological advancement and societal integration.
  5. Ethics and Sustainability: Assessing ethical and sustainable governance frameworks amid rapid technological advancements. This includes the application of the 7PS Model:
    1. Cultural (the 1st priority as foundation): Emphasizing the foundational role of cultural values and heritage in guiding sustainable development.
    2. Environmental: Addressing the environmental implications of technological progress and promoting eco-friendly innovations.
    3. Social: Ensuring social equity and addressing the societal impacts of technological changes.
    4. Economy: Fostering economic stability and growth through sustainable business practices.
    5. Technical: Promoting technological advancements that align with sustainability goals.
    6. Educational: Enhancing educational frameworks to prepare a skilled and adaptable workforce.
    7. Political: Developing political strategies and policies that support sustainable and ethical technological development.
Additionally, PEACE and LOVE should be integral values underpinning these seven pillars, promoting a holistic approach to sustainability that fosters harmony and well-being in society.

Figure 1.  The seven pillars of sustainability (7PS) model, connections, priorities, and values (peace & love)
In this theory and based on the 7PS model, readiness for the first edge of tomorrow which is from 2020-2030 is posited through:
  1. Forecasting: Utilizing comprehensive data analysis and predictive models to anticipate future trends and challenges.
  2. Prevention: Implementing proactive measures to mitigate potential risks and prevent crises.
  3. Facing Today’s Challenges and Tomorrow’s Crises: Developing robust strategies to address current issues and preparing adaptive responses for future disruptions.
This multifaceted approach ensures a resilient and sustainable future, capable of navigating the complexities of an evolving technological landscape.
  1. Envisioning the Future: Projecting a future guided by the principles of the X.0 Wave/Age Theory, emphasizing holistic integration for human advancement. This includes:
    • AI and Automation: Understanding the transformative potential of AI in reshaping industries and societal functions.
    • Cultural Dynamics: Recognizing the influence of cultural contexts on technological adoption and societal change.
    • Global Collaboration: Promoting international cooperation to address global challenges and harness the benefits of technological advancements for all.
    • Future Scenarios: Creating foresight scenarios to anticipate future trends and prepare for potential disruptions, ensuring a resilient and sustainable future for humanity.
By addressing these dimensions, this Special Issue aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of the X.0 Wave Theory's impact on knowledge, technology, and business, and to offer insights into the future challenges and opportunities it presents.
Detailed Explanation: The X.0 Wave/Age Theory posits that human history can be segmented into distinct waves, each characterized by significant technological advancements that transform human interaction and societal organization. The theory currently identifies several key waves:
(The X.0 wave/age theory, F(X)                   X=1,2,3,4,5,6)
  1. X.0=1.0 / Agrarian Age (1.0): Beginning around 70,000 to 500,000 BCE, this age saw the transition from hunting and gathering to settled agriculture, leading to the development of early civilizations.
  2. X.0=2.0 / Industrial Age (2.0): Spanning the 17th-18th centuries, marked by steam power, mechanization, and the rise of factories, which revolutionized mass production and urbanization.
    1. X.0=2.1 / First Industrial Revolution: Introduction of steam power and mechanization.
    2. X.0=2.2 / Second Industrial Revolution: Expansion of mass production and electrical energy.
  3. X.0=3.0 / Information Age (3.0): Emerging in the 20th century, characterized by the digital revolution, computers, and the internet, transforming communication and information sharing.
  4. X.0=4.0 / Intelligence Age (4.0): Defined by the widespread adoption of artificial intelligence, biotechnology, and digitalization, fundamentally altering all aspects of life and work.
  5. X.0=5.0 / Human Age (5.0): Hypothesized future wave focusing on the integration of technology and human biology, leading to significant advances in healthcare and human performance.
  6. X.0=6.0 / Transhuman Age (X.0): A future wave where technology and biology merge, potentially leading to radical changes such as human immortality and space exploration.
Figure 2.  The X.0 wave/age (X.0 = 5.0) theory, ages, society, industries, technologies, and SMEs
The X.0 Wave/Age Theory emphasizes the importance of innovation and technological progress in shaping human history. It suggests that each wave builds upon the achievements of the previous one while introducing new challenges and risks. This framework highlights the need for businesses to adapt to new technologies to thrive in an evolving landscape and underscores the significance of responsible innovation to ensure these advancements benefit humanity as a whole.
By understanding and anticipating the potential impacts of technological advancements, the X.0 Wave/Age Theory encourages individuals and organizations to embrace change and prepare for future challenges and opportunities. This Special Issue seeks to explore these themes, providing insights into the ongoing and future transformations driven by the X.0 Wave/Age Theory.
Table 1 describes how to measure sustainability based on the impact (i), probability (p) and ratio (r) of each pillar presented on Figure 1.
Index Description Row
ri Normal
Probability of each Pillar
Impact of each Pillar
Normalized ratio of each Pillar
Si = ∑ (Pi * Ii * ri Normal)

Conclusion: This Special Issue concludes with reflections on the transformative potential of the X.0 Wave/Age Theory, inviting diverse stakeholders to contribute research and insights toward navigating tomorrow's knowledge, technological, and business landscape.

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