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Photocatalytic Efficiency of Suspended and Immobilized TiO2 P25 for Removing Myclobutanil, Penconazole and Their Commercial Formulations

Photocatalysis: Research and Potential. 2024, 1(1), 10004;
Institut de Chimie et Procédés Pour l’Energie, l’Environnement et la Santé (ICPEES), CNRS-UMR7515 Université de Strasbourg, Antenne de Saint-Avold, Université de Lorraine, 12 rue Victor Demange, 57500 Saint-Avold, France
Laboratoire de Thermodynamique et de Physico-chimie du milieu (LTPCM), UFR Sciences des Fondamentales et Appliquées (SFA), Université Nangui Abrogoua d’Abidjan, 02 BP 801 Abidjan 02, Côte d’Ivoire
Institut de Chimie et Procédés pour l’Energie, l’Environnement et la Santé (ICPEES), CNRS-UMR7515-University Strasbourg, 25 Rue Becquerel, 67087 Strasbourg, France
Laboratoire de Chimie Physique, UFR Sciences des Structures de la Matière et de la Technologie (SSMT), Université Félix Houphouët Boigny d’Abidjan, 22 BP 582 Abidjan 22, Côte d’Ivoire
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.

Received: 10 Mar 2023    Accepted: 29 Jun 2023    Published: 05 Jul 2023   


Fungicide application in viticulture is a major source of surface and groundwater contamination. It is therefore essential to find solutions to stop this environmental pollution. Heterogeneous photocatalysis is an advanced oxidation method for the degradation and mineralization of organic pollutants in water. TiO2 P25 photocatalyst in suspension has been used for removing the fungicides Myclobutanil and Penconazol, and their respective commercial formulations Systhane and Topas, in contaminated water. The apparent kinetic constants kapp of fungicides removal over 30 min batch treatment was higher for a mixture of pure molecules of Myclobutanil and Penconazol than for a mixture of their commercial formulations (17.5 × 10−3 by comparison with 10.3 × 10−3 min−1 for Myclobutanil, and 10.0 × 10−3 by comparison with 2.80 × 10−3 min−1 for Penconazol). TOC removal constants kTOC were similar for the two mixtures, due to the presence of mineral and organic additives in the commercial formulations. To easily recover the photocatalyst after fungicide removal, TiO2 P25 has been supported on β-SiC foam. Fungicides degradation was lower with supported photocatalysts than with the suspension of photocatalyst nanoparticles (NPs) because of a lower concentration of active sites on the supported photocatalyst than in the catalyst suspension. However, catalyst recovery and reuse after fungicide removal is obviously easier with TiO2/β-SiC material than with a suspension of TiO2 which requires long and expensive filtration operations.


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