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Plant Proteins Availability in Europe and Asia: A Causality Analysis of Climate, Demographics, and Economic Factors

Rural and Regional Development . 2024, 2(1), 10002;
Kossivi Fabrice Dossa 1, 2, 3, *    Yann Emmanuel Miassi 2, 3, 4,   
Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Nigeria, Nsukka 041006, Nigeria
Faculty of Forestry, Geography and Geomatics, Laval University, Quebec, QC G1V 0A6, Canada
Action-Research for Sustainable Development NGO, Department of Research Project, Cotonou 03296, Benin
Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Economics, Çukurova University, Adana 01330, Turkey
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.

Received: 28 Oct 2023    Accepted: 03 Jan 2024    Published: 11 Jan 2024   


The article examines the availability of plant-based proteins in Europe and Asia, considering the challenges posed by climate, demographics, and economics. The availability of these proteins is crucial given the growing impact of climate, economic, and social variables. Indeed, these factors play a decisive role in the production and accessibility of plant-based proteins across countries. The study employed a causality analysis method using regression models to determine the relative impact of these factors on protein availability. Two indicators were prioritized: total national production and the daily accessible quantity per person. This approach made it possible to construct hypothetical trajectories, showcasing the interrelations between the different variables. The results show that the availability of plant-based proteins varies across regions. Factors such as rising temperatures, increasing pollutants, and rising prices of plant proteins are particularly concerning. In this context, legumes appear as a promising alternative. They offer resilience against climatic variations while being an excellent protein source. The findings also encourage rethinking our consumption. Meat, with its significant ecological footprint, should see its consumption decrease in favor of plant-based proteins, ensuring a more sustainable diet. To facilitate this transition, the importance of appropriate public policies and incentives for producing and consuming plant proteins is emphasized.
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