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Article

14 May 2024

Measurement and Structure of Common Prosperity of Urban Residents the Case of Hangzhou, China

Common prosperity is an important feature of the social state that the people of the world aspire to, and an important feature of the Chinese path to modernization. Taking common prosperity as the result of income and assets does not facilitate a full understanding of people’s common prosperity, because common prosperity also includes people’s pursuit of subjective happiness such as happiness and satisfaction. From the perspective of the need for a better life in China, this study constructs a subjective evaluation system of the common prosperity of urban residents, including 5 dimensions and 25 specific indicators. It uses survey data from 460 participants and applies the graded response models to estimate parameters and predict latent variables. We find that 21 indicators are in line with the reasonable range of basic assumptions and parameters. They have a strong ability to distinguish the common prosperity of residents in different regions, but have different functional characteristics. The confirmatory factor analysis shows that the common prosperity index of residents includes four potential factors: income, education, medical care, and old-age care, and ecology, which has a good structural effect. In terms of weight, education, medical care and old-age care are the most important factors influencing common prosperity. Among them, the classification policy of high school entrance examination, the quality and fairness of primary and secondary education, the degree of medical insurance security, and the waste sorting and community security are important aspects of evaluating the Common prosperity of residents. 

Keywords: Subjective cognition of the need for a better life; Common prosperity; Graded Response Models; Measurement; Influence Factors

Article

01 April 2024

Identity, Secondary Vocational Education Options and Return on Investment: Evidence from Children of Rural Chinese Families

With the continuous improvement of living standards, the importance of educational choice becomes more and more prominent. Based on the data of China General Social Survey (CGSS), a simultaneous equation model of identity, secondary vocational education choice and investment return is constructed. On the basis of fully considering endogeneity and sample selection bias, this paper analyzes the influence of identity on secondary vocational education choice and investment return by means of instrumental variables and propensity score matching (PSM). It is found that class differentiation is the main factor affecting class identity. The more blurred class differentiation, the higher class identity. Class identity has a significant positive impact on identity. The higher class identity, the easier it is to form identity. Identity has a direct positive impact on personal investment return. The stronger the identity, the higher the investment return. At the same time, identity has a significant positive impact on the choice of secondary vocational education. The stronger the identity, the more inclined to choose secondary vocational education. Compared with individuals with junior high school education, individuals with secondary vocational education have a higher return on education investment. Therefore, identity can not only directly improve an individual’s return on investment, but also improve the possibility of an individual’s choice of secondary vocational education, thereby improving an individual’s return on education investment, and ultimately increasing an individual’s return on investment.

Keywords: Identity; Class differentiation; Educational choice; Return on investment; Simultaneous equations model; Mediating effect model; Common prosperity

Article

25 March 2024

Discussion on the Marine Protected Area on the High Seas: From the Perspective of Obligations Erga Omnes Partes

The BBNJ Agreement promotes the conservation and sustainable use of high seas marine biodiversity through the establishment of high seas protected areas. The high seas biodiversity protected by the Agreement has the nature of “obligations erga omnes partes” on an ex officio basis, but in judicial practice it is subject to a finding by the International Court of Justice that the adoption of treaty-based institutional arrangements is in the “collective interest” and that it is in the “collective interest” to adopt such arrangements. The BBNJ Agreement is currently not a “collective interest” agreement in terms of the management of the BBNJ Agreement. At present, the hybrid management model adopted in the BBNJ Agreement does not reflect the collective interest in substance, and cannot resolve the conflict between the establishment of protected areas on the high seas and other area-based management tools, so it is necessary to further harmonize the relationship between the Conference of Parties to the BBNJ and the IFB, and to strengthen the mandate of the COP.

Keywords: Obligations erga omnes partes; Marine Protected Area on the High Seas; Area-based management tools; Governance model; BBNJ Agreement 

Article

27 February 2024

Knowledge-data Collaborated Digital Twin Model of Papermaking Process

The structure of the drying section in papermaking process is complex and too compacted to install sensors. In order to monitor the parameters in dynamic and manage the process practically with virtual simulations instead of physical experiments, a digital twin-based process parameter visualization model is constructed in this study. Regarding to the possible missing data in the modeling framework, it is proposed to combine industrial data, and knowledge of mechanism with intelligent algorithms to fill in the missing parameters. Upon which, a digital twin-based data visualization model is established using CADSIM Plus simulation software. Both of the knowledge -based mechanism solution model and the random forest-based parametric prediction model perform well, and the predicted parameters can support the digital twin visualization model in CADSIM Plus. Visual modeling of surface condenser in the paper drying section was realized for example, and results show that the model is capable of monitoring the dynamic changes of parameters in real time, so as to support the optimization and decision making of papermaking process such as formation, drying, et al.

Keywords: Digital twin; Model; Papermaking; Parameter prediction; Simulation

Review

26 February 2024

Mechanisms of Fibroblast Activation during Fibrotic Tissue Remodeling

Fibrosis can occur in almost every organ system. It can occur in single organs, such as in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), or affect multiple organs as in systemic sclerosis (SSc). Fibrotic diseases are recognized as major cause of morbidity and mortality in modern societies due to the dysfunction or loss of function of the affected organs. This dysfunction is caused by progressive deposition of extracellular matrix proteins released by activated fibroblasts. Activation of fibroblasts and differentiation into myofibroblasts is required for physiological tissue remodeling, e.g, during wound healing. Disruption of regulatory mechanisms, however, results in chronic and uncontrolled activity of fibroblasts and myofibroblasts. Intensive research during the past years identified several core pathways of pathophysiological relevance, and described different fibroblast subsets based on their expression profile in fibrotic tissue. Herein, we discuss the molecular changes in fibroblasts leading to persistent activation during fibrotic tissue remodeling with a focus on lung fibrosis and SSc.

Keywords: Fibrosis; Systemic sclerosis; Fibroblast

Article

29 January 2024

A Novel High Step-up DC-DC Converter Using State Space Modelling Technique for Battery Storage Applications

This paper focuses a novel non-isolated coupled inductor based DC-DC converter with excessive VG (voltage gain) is analyzed with a state-space modeling technique. It builds up of using three diodes, three capacitors, an inductor and CI (coupled inductor). The main switch S is turn on due to body diode and voltage stress is reduced at the switch S by using diode D1 and Capacitor C1. This paper focuses on design modelling, mathematical calculations and operation principle of DC-DC converter is discussed with state-space modelling technique. The performance has been presented for two different voltages for EV applications i.e., 12 V, 48 V as input voltages with an high step-up outputs of 66 V and 831.7 V respectively. The converter stability is studied and determined the bode plot along with simulation performance results which are carried out using MATLAB R2022B.

Keywords: DC-DC Converter; Energy Storage System; High Step-Up; State-Space Modelling

Article

16 January 2024

The Interplay between Experimental Data and Uncertainty Analysis in Quantifying CO2 Trapping during Geological Carbon Storage

Numerical simulation is a widely used tool for studying CO2 storage in porous media. It enables the representation of trapping mechanisms and CO2 retention capacity. The complexity of the involved physicochemical phenomena necessitates multiphase flow, accurate fluid and rock property representation, and their interactions. These include CO2 solubility, diffusion, relative permeabilities, capillary pressure hysteresis, and mineralization, all crucial in CO2 trapping during carbon storage simulations. Experimental data is essential to ensure accurate quantification. However, due to the extensive data required, modeling under uncertainty is often needed to assess parameter impacts on CO2 trapping and its interaction with geological properties like porosity and permeability. This work proposes a framework combining laboratory data and stochastic parameter distribution to map uncertainty in CO2 retention over time. Published data representing solubility, residual trapping, and mineral trapping are used to calibrate prediction models. Geological property variations, like porosity and permeability, are coupled to quantify uncertainty. Results from a saline sandstone aquifer model demonstrate significant variation in CO2 trapping, ranging from 17% (P10 estimate) to 56% (P90), emphasizing the importance of considering uncertainty in CO2 storage projects. Quadratic response surfaces and Monte Carlo simulations accurately capture this uncertainty, resulting in calibrated models with an R-squared coefficient above 80%. In summary, this work provides a practical and comprehensive framework for studying CO2 retention in porous media, addressing uncertainty through stochastic parameter distributions, and highlighting its importance in CO2 storage projects. 

Keywords: CO2 trapping mechanisms; CCS; Uncertainty analysis; Proxy models; Saline aquifer

Article

28 November 2023

Translational Studies Reveal the Divergent Effects of Simtuzumab Targeting LOXL2 in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

The composition of extracellular matrix (ECM) is altered during pathologic scarring in damaged organs including the lung. One major change in the ECM involves the cross-linking of collagen, which promotes fibroblast to myofibroblast differentiation. We examined the role of lysyl oxidase (LOX)-like 2 in lung progenitors and fibroblasts cultured from normal or IPF lung samples and in a humanized mouse model of IPF using a monoclonal antibody (Simtuzumab). Primary lung fibroblasts from normal donor lungs and IPF lung explants were examined for expression of LOXL2. Targeting LOXL2 with Simtuzumab on normal and IPF fibroblasts was examined both in vitro and in vivo for synthetic, functional, and profibrotic properties. LOXL2 was increased at transcript and protein level in IPF compared with normal lung samples. In a dose-dependent manner, Simtuzumab enhanced differentiation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts. Inhibition of LOXL2 also enhanced fibroblast invasion and accelerated the outgrowth of fibroblasts from dissociated human lung cell preparations. Finally, preventative or delayed delivery of Simtuzumab enhanced lung fibrosis in a humanized mouse model of pulmonary fibrosis. Consistent with its failure in a Phase 2 clinical trial, Simtuzumab exhibited no therapeutic efficacy in translational in vitro and in vivo assays.

Keywords: IPF; Pulmonary fibrosis; Collagen; LoxL2; Simtuzumab; Humanized mouse model of IPF

Communication

03 March 2023

Evaluating Different UAS Flight Methods for 3D Model Generation and Printing of a Tornado Destroyed Cultural Heritage: Caddo House in Texas

In recent years, the use of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) to obtain imagery for photogrammetry has become commonplace. Using these data to develop 3D products has also grown significantly in both research and commercial applications. This study aims to find a relatively simple and low cost UAS flight method as a means to obtain data to produce a 3D model suitable for 3D printing. The study subject chosen to assess different flight methods was the Caddo House at Caddo Mounds State Historical Site located near Alto, Cherokee County, Texas, USA. To collect images for analysis, a DJI Phantom 4 Pro UAS was used. Pix4DCapture was used to fly the drone. Two main missions were carried out, one being a pre-defined double-grid flight, and the other being an orbital free-flight method. The findings of this study indicate that if the goal is to create a true-to-life 3D model of an object using UAS, the best method would be a curated orbital free-flight method. If there is time constraint and the subject is sufficiently large and not considerably irregular, a double-grid method with sufficient forward overlap and side overlap can produce desirable results, but with a slight loss of fine details. The 3D model developed from the curated orbital flight method was successfully printed with a customer grade FDM 3D printer.

Keywords: UAS; Orthomosaic; Cultural heritage; 3D model; 3D printing

Article

07 February 2023

Plasmon Enhanced Nickel(II) Catalyst for Photocatalytic Lignin Model Cleavage

Photocatalytic-induced cleaving of the ether C–O bond in model lignin compounds was studied with a closely-coupled compo-site material consisting of Ni(OH)2 and gold nanoparticles (NPs) on a zirconia support (Au/ZrO2–Ni(OH)2). The three important ether bond types consisting of α-O-4, β-O-4, and 4-O-5 linkages can all be cleaved using this catalyst at reaction temperatures 40, 85 and 95 °C when under low-flux visible light irradiation. The Au NPs action as a light-harvesting antenna provided light-generated hot electrons that reduced Ni2+ to Ni0. The Ni0 was the active catalytic site where reductive cleavage of ether C–O bonds occurred while it was oxidized to Ni2+ to complete the catalysis cycle. The plasmonic antenna system with supported Ni(OH)2 exhibited better ability for the catalytic reductive ether cleavages under visible light irradiation compared to photocata-lysts of Au NPs and Ni2+ ions immobilized on alumina fibers.

Keywords: Lignin model cleavage; Photocatalysis; LSPR effect; Mild conditions
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